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Recurrent miscarriage is a challenging aspect of every family building process. It is defined as a series of two or more pregnancy losses. An alternative treatment option suggested by physicians in the prevention of recurrent miscarriage is assisted reproductive technology (ART). Advanced technology is used to help with the selection of top-quality embryos to transfer to the patient’s uterus.
Women who have experienced three or more consecutive miscarriages may benefit from Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS). PGS Cyprus is an innovative technology that screens embryos for chromosomal abnormalities. In this process, all 23 pairs of chromosomes are evaluated to determine if there is a missing or an extra pair of chromosomes. IVF with PGS Cyprus is an effective fertility treatment for both explained and unexplained recurrent miscarriage.
At euroCARE IVF in North Cyprus, we thoroughly evaluate women who have suffered recurrent miscarriages to determine the exact cause of miscarriage. We encourage couples to have a fertility consultation after the second miscarriage. Testing for miscarriage may include:
- chromosome testing (karyotyping)
- testing for autoimmune and blood clotting disorders
- testing for hormonal imbalance
- evaluation of ovulation and progesterone levels
- evaluation of the uterus for abnormalities
- testing for infections
What Causes Recurrent Miscarriage
Miscarriage is a natural way to terminate a pregnancy that is abnormal. Most miscarriages happen due to a problem with the chromosomes of an embryo. A variety of other factors can also make a woman unable to carry a pregnancy to term. Common reasons for pregnancy failure include:
- Genetics. Chromosomal abnormalities within the embryo are belived to be the main cause of miscarriage. These abnormalities usually happen when a cell division goes wrong. As a result, the embryo has a missing or an extra pair of chromosomes. A genetic condition that affects one or both parents may also result in a miscarriage. The good news is that parents can now get tested before starting IVF treatment in Cyprus. This test is called a karyotype analysis and it looks into the chromosomal makeup of the patient. Genetic disorders affecting parents can be detected using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Before transfer, embryos are screened for certain genetic conditions that may affect their growth and development or may cause birth defects in an unborn child.
- Endometrial receptivity. Endometrium is the tissue where implantation occurs. The embryo attaches to the endometrium (uterine lining) and gets all the nutrients from it during pregnancy. The health of the uterus is vital for establishing a successful pregnancy. The process of implantation is hormonally regulated. Hormones create a favorable environment for the embryo to be able to develop and grow into a healthy baby. If there are issues with the uterus that obstruct the interaction between the embryo and uterine lining, these can result in miscarriage.
- Uterine conditions. Common conditions that affect a woman’s uterus include polyps, fibroids, and malformations (congenital abnormalities). These can cause miscarriage or complications during pregnancy. An ultrasound scan or an X-ray test can help determine if there are any structural abnormalities of the uterus. Many abnormalities of the uterus can be treated surgically.
- Autoimmune diseases. Certain types of antibodies in the female body may attack the fetus and lead to miscarriage. This usually happens by causing clotting (blockage of blood flow) in the placenta. Patients who suffered recurrent miscarriages undergo antibody and antigen testing before attempting for pregnancy. Several types of anti-clotting medications (blood thinners) are used to prevent clotting.
- Lifestyle factors. A strong correlation between lifestyle factors such as smoking, caffeine, and alcohol use and miscarriage has been suggested although further research is required to confirm the previous results. Generally, women who have experienced three or more miscarriages in the past are advised to avoid smoking, and cut out caffeine intake and alcohol use.
- Infections. The link between an infection such as Chlamydia and miscarriage is very weak. Chlamydia test helps diagnose the disease so it can be treated before conception.
- Endocrine disorders. Serious disorders of the endocrine system including diabetes and thyroid diseases can increase the risk of miscarriage. Treatment of hormonal disorders includes medication which can regulate the hormone levels and reduce the symptoms.
Tips to Prevent Recurrent Miscarriage
Recurrent miscarriage (more than two pregnancy losses) is a challenging condition that affects about 2 percent of pregnant women. Although you cannot prevent miscarriage, there are always ways you can improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy. We’d love to share some of the tips recommended by our fertility specialist.
- Improve your diet. A well-balanced diet is the best way to provide nutrients for your body. Studies showed that eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables every day can significantly lower the risk of having a miscarriage. You can always complement your diet with a prenatal vitamin which will give you an additional boost to your fertility.
- Book a visit to your ob-gyn. Your ob-gyn will review your medical and reproductive history and will perform a physical exam to check for any abnormalities.
- Be active. You should exercise with moderation. Avoid strenuous activities and contact sports. Instead you can do low-impact exercises such as walking, jogging, or yoga.
- Improve your lifestyle. Limit your caffeine intake to less than 200 milligrams a day. Avoid drugs, smoking, and alcohol.
- Reduce stress. Stress can change the hormone balance which can have an impact on your fertility hormones and chances of conception.
Recurrent Miscarriage: Will I Ever Have a Baby
Miscarriage is common – 30 percent of all women experience miscarriage in their lifetime. Around 40 to 50 percent of miscarriages happen for an unknown cause. Women who have experienced multiple miscarriages still have a good chance of achieving a successful pregnancy. Even women who miscarry for no identifiable cause can ultimately have a successful pregnancy with customized fertility care.
Typically, conception isn’t recommended for two weeks after a miscarriage in order to prevent an infection. Once you feel emotionally and physically ready for pregnancy after miscarriage, ask our fertility specialist for further instructions. After two or more miscarriages, you may need to undergo additional testing to determine the cause of miscarriage in your case.
IVF for Recurrent Miscarriage
Management of recurrent miscarriage involves the application of high-tech fertility treatment along with PGS Cyprus testing. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is an intervention that allows our embryologists to identify chromosomally abnormal embryos with more than 99% accuracy. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is another genetic test that screens embryos for genetic defects. We do analysis on 5 chromosomes which are known to be the cause of gene-linked disorders in 90 percent of cases.
Using normal embryos increase the chances of successful implantation and decreases the risk of miscarriage. PGS and PGD testing can improve the IVF outcome for patients with recurrent miscarriage and raise the likelihood of successful IVF treatment.
How is PGS Testing Done
PGS is done by removing one cell of day-3 (cleavage stage) embryos. Before doing the lab analysis, the standard IVF procedure will be carried out. The egg is fertilised with the sperm and the embryos are allowed to grow in the lab for up to three days.
PGD, on the other hand, is performed on day-5 embryos before these are being implanted into the patient’s uterus. An embryo biopsy consists of taking one cell of each well-developing embryo and sending the samples to the lab for a genetic analysis. The embryos are safely frozen until the test results get ready. With PGD, genetic diseases such as Thalassemia, Cystic Fibrosis, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Sickle Cell Anemia, etc can be detected.
The embryos are screened using PGS/PGD in the following way:
- One cell is removed from each of the embryos.
- The cell is analysed to determine if there are all 23 pairs of chromosomes present within the embryo (PGS).
- The cell’s DNA is analysed to detect a specific genetic mutation (PGD).
- Once the test results become available, our fertility team will select the healthiest embryos for transfer into the uterus.
- Any extra good quality embryos can be frozen (cryopreservation) and used in future IVF cycles.
PGS/PGD Testing at euroCARE IVF
- Full chromosomes screening
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Beta Thalassemia
- Muscular Dystrophy
- Chromosomal Translocations
- Huntington’s Disease
- Other genetic conditions
Results from PGS/PDG Testing
There are several possible results that can be obtained from PGS/PGD:
- Normal embryos – these have a normal number of chromosomes or absence of a genetic defect.
- Abnormal embryo – shows extra or missing chromosomes instead of all 46 chromosomes.
- Embryos with partial deletions have a missing copy of genetic material in one or more chromosomes.
- Mosaic – shows a mixture of normal and abnormal cells within those analysed.
- No result – the sample could not be analysed in the lab. This happens in less than 5% of embryos biopsied.
Can PGS/PGD Prevent Recurrent Miscarriage
PGS has been shown to improve the success rates of IVF Cyprus cycles at euroCARE IVF. The benefits of including PGS/PGD in your IVF treatment include:
- Higher chance of successful implantation
- A reduced risk of miscarriage
- Remove risk of multiple pregnancies
- Increase the chances of having a healthy baby
- Option to choose the gender of your baby
PGS North Cyprus Success Rates
The graph below indicates your likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy using PGS according to age.
When PGS is carried out, clinical pregnancy rates can be as high as 75% per cycle with transfer of a normal, disease-free, good-quality embryo. Embryos that were not previously screened have very low chances of success for women with multiple pregnancy losses. Recent studies suggest PGS can improve clinical pregnancy rates and decease the risk of miscarriage.
PGS/PGD and Prenatal Genetic Testing
In addition to PGS, doctors recommend using prenatal genetic testing after the pregnancy has been confirmed. Screening options include:
- Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS). This test involves removing a few cells from the placenta, between weeks 10-12 of the pregnancy. The cell samples are then analysed for chromosomal disorders.
- Amniocentesis. This test is done by taking a few cells from the amniotic fluid, between weeks 16-18 of the pregnancy. These samples are also analysed for chromosomal disorders in the foetus.
- Ultrasound and blood tests. These combined tests check for markers that may suggest that there is a genetic problem in the fetus.
Treating Recurrent Miscarriage at euroCARE IVF
Miscarriage is the spontaneous termination of a pregnancy before the 20th week. Many miscarriages occur because of an error in the embryo. Chromosomal abnormalities occur as a result of an abnormal cell division. Sometimes there might be an underlying medical condition that can lead to miscarriage. Quite often, the cause of miscarriage is unedintifiable.
At our leading North Cyprus IVF center, we take patients who have recurrent miscarriages very seriously and provide a customized treatment plan tailored to their needs. If you have suffered two or more consecutive pregnancy losses, we encourage you to speak to our fertility specialist. He will review your medical history, order a few tests, and will decide on the best course of treatment in your situation. You don’t have to wait unbearably long period of time before trying to conceive again. All you have to do is to follow the dietary and health guidelines recommended by our doctor and have all necessary testing and screening to ensure a positive pregnancy.
Screening technologies such as PGS Cyprus (Preimplantation Genetic Screening) and PGD Cyprus (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis) can help identify the best embryos to transfer to your uterus. Thanks to cutting-edge technology, we are able to detect chromosomal and genetic abnormalities within the embryo before conception. Armed with valuable genetic information, our medical team can make the best possible decision as to which embryos to transfer and how many of them will be used for achieving a pregnancy.
After discussing all important issues with our fertility doctor, you can start your IVF treatment in Cyprus. This beautiful island has been a mecca for thousands of infertile couples for many years. Lead by the mission to help individuals and couples around the world fulfill their dream of becoming parents, our clinic is unique in that it offers cheap, affordable IVF packages while keeping medical standards very high.
Your IVF North Cyprus treatment will take up to 20 days. This is a great opportunity for you to spend some time in Cyprus and have fertility treatment and holiday all in one. Our support team will help you plan your trip to and from North Cyprus.
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